The Hebrew word for "days"
in Daniel 8:14

Dr. Desmond Ford has written many things against the doctrine of the Heavenly Sanctuary and the Investigative Judgment of the Seventh Day Adventists. The following two arguments, taken from a critique he did of the Third Quarter 2006 Adult Sabbath School Lesson, are presented below with our examination of them. We will quote him first in italic, and respond right after:

First argument:
The Hebrew word for “days”

“… But what about Daniel 8:14? Well, the Hebrew word for days, though often used by Daniel, is not here to be found. The Hebrew expression rendered ‘evening mornings’ is not identical with the similar words of Genesis 1 (see modem translations), and Daniel 8:26 with its inclusion of the article before each Hebrew term proves that what is intended is the daily evening and morning sacrifice. (‘Evening’ and ‘morning’ refer to points of time, not the dark and light parts of the day. Take the concordance and see.)”

We therefore grabbed our Strong’s concordance, as Dr. Ford suggested, and this is what we found…

The Hebrew words translated “days” in Daniel 8:14 are ‛ereb and bôqer. The word ‛ereb means “dusk” and is often translated “night, even, evening, evening tide and days.” The second word, bôqer, means “dawn, break of day, morning” and is often translated, “morning, marrow, early and day.” So generally the words ‛ereb and bôqer mean evening and morning. This is awfully similar to what we find in Genesis 1. Take a look:

Genesis 1:5
And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening (‛ereb) and the morning (bôqer) were the first day.

Genesis 1:8
And God called the firmament Heaven. And the evening (‛ereb) and the morning (bôqer) were the second day.

Genesis 1:13
And the evening (‛ereb) and the morning (bôqer) were the third day.


We notice that the combination of the evening and morning, or the ‛ereb and the bôqer, make up the “yom” which is the Hebrew word translated as “day.” Where then does Dr. Ford say that the two words in Daniel 8:14 are not the same words in Genesis 1? They are the exact same words, and since both words put together make up a “day,” the same words, found in Daniel 8:14, also make up a “day.” Why were these Hebrew words used in Daniel 8:14 and not simply the Hebrew word “yom?” Perhaps these were used to emphasis the importance of this prophecy in showing how that at the end of this time period, something major in God’s plans was to be accomplished, much like at the end of their use in Genesis 1 something major in God’s plan was accomplished: the creation.

Now Dr. Ford makes the following comment…

“… and Daniel 8:26 with its inclusion of the article before each Hebrew term proves that what is intended is the daily evening and morning sacrifice.”

The article “the” is not in the Hebrew, but we can see how it was placed there in the English language. However we do not agree that this proves that the intention in Daniel 8:26 is the evening and morning sacrifice, simply because the daily sacrifice was not rendered “evening and morning” as found in this verse but rather “morning and evening.” The following verse will show the true order in which the daily sacrifices were to take place:

Numbers 28:3-4
(3) And thou shalt say unto them, This is the offering made by fire which ye shall offer unto the LORD; two lambs of the first year without spot day by day, for a continual burnt offering.
(4) The one lamb shalt thou offer in the morning (boqer), and the other lamb shalt thou offer at even (ereb) [see also Exodus 29:38-42].

Perhaps the translators knew this, which is probably why, when they included the word “sacrifices” in the texts in Daniel, they did it in italic, showing that it was not in the original text.

It is note-worthy to see that the Hebrew word translated “sacrifice” in Numbers 28:3-6 in describing the “morning/evening” sacrifice is 'ishshâh and this word is nowhere to be found in all of Daniel chapter 8. In fact, the Hebrew word translated “sacrifices” in Daniel 9:27, which some say this is also speaking about the “daily” sacrifice, is again not the same Hebrew word used to describe the daily sacrifice in Numbers 28.

Now examine the above verses in Numbers 28 carefully. Note the difference between the order in which the two words “boqer and ereb” appear in the Hebrew of Daniel 8:14, 28 and the order in which they were to be observed according to Numbers 28:3-4. In Numbers, God said that the daily (day by day) sacrifices were to take place beginning first with the morning (the boqer) sacrifice and then ending with the evening (the ereb) sacrifice. If the “days” in Daniel 8:14, 28 were the same as the daily sacrifices, the order of the Hebrew words would have rather been “boqer/ereb.” Add to this that, as mentioned already, the Hebrew word translated “sacrifice” in Numbers 28 is no where to be found in all of Daniel 8, showing that the intention is not the daily morning/evening sacrifices as our critic contends.

Second Argument:
The power received by Christ

“To properly exegete Daniel, one must remember that it is not the practice of the Old Testament to separate the two advents. The kingdom of God is seen as a unit ushered in by the death of the Messiah and consummated at his return. Thus the parallel passage in Daniel 7:13-14 is cited by Christ in Matthew 28:18 as applying to him, because of the victory of the Cross.”

We went back and took a second look at these passages. Notice what we have found:

Daniel 7:13-14
(13) I saw in the night visions, and, behold, one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him.
(14) And there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages, should serve him: his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed.

Now the Matthew passage:

Matthew 28:18-19
(18) And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth.
(19) Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:

Notice in Daniel 7:13 that Jesus came, not to the earth at his second coming, but, “…to the Ancient of days” and “near before him.” That is where he received, “dominion, and glory, and a kingdom.” However, while speaking in Matthew 28:18, Jesus appears to be on earth when he received his “power” because he is speaking to his disciples, telling them to go to all nations, teaching and baptizing them, “in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.” How then can Dr. Ford really say that these two passages parallel each other when both take place in two different locations?

Furthermore, we agree that Jesus received glory after his resurrection, but he did not yet receive a “kingdom” according to (1 Co. 15:24) which makes it clear he receives his kingdom at his second coming, where he shall “put down all rule and all authority and all power.” Now the above verse says that Christ delivers up the kingdom to God, but it should always be remembered that everything that is God’s, is Christ’s as well (John 3:35, 5:26-27, 13:3, 17:10-11).

The power given to Christ in Matthew 28:18 is not the same given in Daniel 7:13, for, while it might be glorious, it does not include a “kingdom” or a “dominion” as Daniel 7:13 includes, and is not the same kind of power being spoken of, as will be shown in a moment. Furthermore, as shown above, both events take place to two different locations.

The passage in Matthew 28:18, when compared to Luke’s and Mark’s account, shows that the power given to Christ is rather the gift of the Holy Spirit, which would be later manifested through the disciples at Pentecost. Let us compare those accounts now (notice the underlined parts):

Matthew’s account:

“And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth. Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Amen.” (Matthew 28:18-20)

Mark’s account:

“And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature. He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be damned. And these signs shall follow them that believe; In my name shall they cast out devils; they shall speak with new tongues; They shall take up serpents; and if they drink any deadly thing, it shall not hurt them; they shall lay hands on the sick, and they shall recover. So then after the Lord had spoken unto them, he was received up into heaven, and sat on the right hand of God. And they went forth, and preached every where, the Lord working with them, and confirming the word with signs following. Amen.” (Mark 16:15-20)

Luke’s account:

“And said unto them, Thus it is written, and thus it behoved Christ to suffer, and to rise from the dead the third day: And that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem. And ye are witnesses of these things. And, behold, I send the promise of my Father upon you: but tarry ye in the city of Jerusalem, until ye be endued with power from on high. And he led them out as far as to Bethany, and he lifted up his hands, and blessed them.” (Luke 24:46-50)

“But ye shall receive power, after that the Holy Ghost is come upon you: and ye shall be witnesses unto me both in Jerusalem, and in all Judaea, and in Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of the earth. And when he had spoken these things, while they beheld, he was taken up; and a cloud received him out of their sight.” (Act 1:8-9)

Take note that when all accounts are understood together, we learn that the power spoken of by Christ is that of the power of the Holy Spirit which, says Christ, “I send…” –Luke 24:49. Please look carefully… Matthew 28:18 says that Christ receives “power” and in Luke 24:49 it is Christ himself who sends his power, being the gift of the Holy Spirit, to his disciples, so that following their preaching they can perform signs and wonders, including casting out demons, healing the sick and speaking in tongues (Mark 16:17) all of which took place at Penticost in Acts 2 and beyond.

Notice: Please come back as we will continue to add arguments here from Dr. Ford’s critique of the 2006 Adult Sabbath School Lesson.



This critique was completed. Visit our new page: A Critique of Dr. Desmond For'ds: Critique of the 2006 Sabbath School Lesson.

For further study, see:

-The Hebrew word for "cleansed" in Daniel 8:14
-The phrase "within the vail" in Hebrews 6:19
-Did Antiochus fulfill the 2300 day prophecy?